Into the Geocentric Valley

costume culture of tujia nationality Tujia daughter will Crying for marriage Meat even ring Hand-waving dance Sal Ho
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Fabric: Tujia language "Xilankapu" is a kind of Tujia brocade.

In Tujia language, "Xilan" means bedding, "Karp" means flower, and "Xilan Karp" means Tujia people's flower bedding. People often put the word "earth" in front of the "flower bedding" to mark the characteristics of the Tujia nationality contained in this folk craft.

Tuhua bedding is cherished by Tujia people, regarded as the crystallization of wisdom and skills, and is called "Tujia flower". According to the Tujia custom, in the past, when Tujia girls got married, they had to make beautiful "Xilankapu", that is, Tuhua bedding, on the weaving machine.

Legends of Origin

There are only fragmentary records of the origin and development of "Xilankapu" in historical records.

The "Orchid Fine Cloth" in "The Book of the Later Han Dynasty · The Biography of the Southwest Barbarians" weaves the twill brocade of the Cultural Revolution ", which is the predecessor of the earth flower bedding, and the" Wuling barbarians "have the habits of" weaving wood skin and dyeing with grass "," good five-color clothes "and" colorful clothes.

"Wuling barbarian" is a name used in history for Tujia people. The long tradition of the Tujia nationality that is good at weaving has been preserved until before and after the change of the soil and the return of the river, both men and women still maintain the custom of "beautiful and colorful". In general documents, various different names are given to the soil flower bedding: the "Longshan County Annals" revised during the Tongzhi period said: "The five-color line of the" Tujin "is colorful and lovely. The common use is thought to be a cover, or as a dress, or as a towel, so it is also called a post towel.

"Yongshun Fu Zhi" said: "spot cloth is soil brocade." "The natives' weaving with one hand and picking flowers with fine horns with the other, thus forming five colors." The so-called "gang towel", "soil brocade" and "soil silk, gang brocade" and other similar titles all refer to the soil flower bedding.

Another legend is that Xilan is a person's name and Karp is the cloth she weaves. Legend has it that Xilan is the most beautiful and intelligent girl in Tujia Shanzhai. She has embroidered all the flowers in the mountain, and she has not seen ginkgo flowers (ginkgo) that bloom in the middle of the night and fade in the middle of the night. In order to embroider ginkgo flowers, she climbed up the tall ginkgo tree alone in the middle of the night to talk with ginkgo flowers, only to be found by her ugly and bad sister-in-law. Her brother listened to her slander and cut down the ginkgo tree with a plank axe. Xilan fell to her death, but her embroidery art was passed down by the Tujia.

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Tujia daughter will

Known as the "Oriental Valentine's Day", the daughter will be a national event for the Enshi Tujia people and one of the most representative regional national traditional festivals in China. It is a spontaneous way of choosing a spouse for the purpose of love, which is formed by the Enshi Tujia people on the pretext of going to the market, in the form of songs to each other. The time is usually on the twelfth day of the seventh lunar month.

It preserves the legacy of the primitive marriage customs of the ancient Ba people. It is a way of love that is opposed to feudal arranged marriages in remote Tujia cottages. It is a spontaneous formation of the Tujia youth in Enshi in the process of pursuing free marriage. The main purpose of the festival. Its main feature is to use song as a medium and choose a spouse independently. At that time, mainly young girls, there are also married women to participate, through the form of song to find the right person or date with an old lover, to express their feelings.

When attending the daughter's meeting, young women dressed in festive costumes, put on their most beautiful clothes, and used to wear the long ones inside and the short ones outside. One piece was shorter than the other, and could be seen layer by layer. It is called "bright discount" or commonly known as "three drops of water", and wear their best gold and silver jewelry.

On the day of the daughter's meeting, the girls placed the local mountain goods carried by the basket on both sides of the street, while they sat firmly on the upside-down basket, waiting for the right person to buy things. The young man slung a basket over his shoulder, shaped like a casual wanderer, accosted him in front of the girl. The two sides talked harmoniously. When the opportunities were congenial, he went to the jungle outside the street to catch up with the "daughter's meeting". Through the form of female asking and male answering, he exchanged his heart songs to determine his life.

Crying for marriage

Originated from women's marriage is not free, they use the song of weeping marriage, to accuse the evil marriage system. Today, marriage is free. Tujia girls also have to cry when they get married, but the crying marriage after liberation is only a ceremony. Accompanying the ten sisters is a unique form of Tujia girls crying for marriage. On the night before the bride got married, the parents invited 9 unmarried girls from their neighbors, including 10 brides, to sit around and sing all night, so they said they would sing with the ten sisters.

The ten sisters sat around a table. First, the bride cried "ten pendulums" and the bride cried "one pendulums". The cook placed the same dish on the table. After the placement, the other nine sisters cried in turn. Finally, the bride cried "ten collections". The cook collected the same food and drinks. After the dishes were collected, the activity with the ten sisters was over.

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Crying for marriage is usually carried out in the bride's boudoir. Whoever the bride cries must accompany her to cry. Men who do not cry should also say a few words of comfort and blessing to show their farewell. Crying for marriage is the most lively night before the bride's marriage, especially before dawn, when parents, sisters and the bride cry, they cry like tears, showing the kindness between relatives incisively and vividly, and onlookers are all moved to tears.

When the girl cried, all the relatives and neighbors also tried to persuade her to cry. She cried faintly and urged her to speak eloquently. She kept wiping her tears with her hands while sobbing. The inseparable affection of flesh and blood made people moved, and all the people present burst into tears. At this time, there is also a rule that all the female relatives (friends) who accompany crying should give their daughters a "waist tying ceremony", also known as "waist packing". When crying for marriage, the girl hung a red bellyband around her neck, and all her relatives and friends advised her to cry while adding money to it (in the old days, it was mostly lace-that is, Guangyang). In this way, I would like to express my comfort and affection, and wish my daughter good health and a person with a straight waist.

As a custom, the origin and meaning of crying marriage are related to the old marriage customs and feudal ethics. When a girl does not cry when she gets married, it will not only be considered unlucky, but also be condemned by public opinion. Another important factor is the role of emotion. In the old days, marriage was entirely up to parents. I had no idea who I was going to marry and what my life would be like after marriage. It was really sad to think of these things. How can I not cry? The water poured out by a woman who marries her husband is very difficult to meet her parents and brothers after marriage unless she is in discord with her husband or the marriage changes. The pain of separation is really unbearable. How can she not cry.

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Meat even ring

The meat even ring is the "Lianxiang Dance" without holding copper coins and bamboo poles ". With bare hands and bare back, the main palm hits the forehead, shoulders, face, arms, elbows, waist, legs and other parts to make a rhythmic sound. According to the needs of the performance, the artist adds the tongue and fingers to the sound of the accompanying committee to increase the joyous atmosphere of the dance. It fully demonstrates the rugged and wild character of the Tujia people.

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Hand-waving dance

Waving dance is a traditional dance with a long history of Tujia people. It is a large-scale dance epic that Tujia people cherish the memory of their ancestors, recall the hardships of national migration, and reproduce the tranquil rural life. Its costumes and props also contain the cultural elements of the nation. All kinds of national costumes and props will be decorated in a grand and warm hall. There were many banners on the waving field. People held dragon and phoenix flag teams (made of red, blue, white and yellow silk), dressed in "Xilankabu" (flower quilt), holding wine cans with the word "fu", carrying grain, prey, baba, picking up rice, tofu, holding eyebrow-raising sticks, magic knives, facing tubes, carrying bird guns, eyebrow-raising sticks, shuttle darts, etc, blowing the horn, the earth horn, the suona, the three-eyed blunderbuss, the gongs and drums are noisy, the singing is moving, the men and women are happy, the dancing is graceful, and the atmosphere is very warm. As a Tujia bamboo branch poem describes: "Fushi City in the brocade as a nest, Tuwang palace banks aquatic waves. The red light thousands of people, a lingering wave song.

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Sal Ho

Sal Ho, also known as "Dao Du", is an ancient liquid burial dance of the Tujia people in Enshi Prefecture. There are such says as "when people die, everyone will fight and help" and "repair but not grieve, imitate but not shrink. The custom of doing things happily in Tujia reflects the spirit of unity and the optimistic attitude of life and death. Nowadays, the funeral dance has been gradually separated from the funeral activities and has become a kind of Tujia mass dance with ornamental appearance.