Folk Customs
Folk Customs

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West Lancap

Fabric:Tujia language "Silankapu" is a Tujia brocade.

 In Tujia language, "Xilan" means paving, "Kapp" is the meaning of flowers, and "Silankapu" is the flower cover of Tujia people. People often use the word "earth" in front of the "flower cover" to mark the characteristics of the Tujia nationality contained in this folk craft.

The earth flower cover is cherished by the people of the Tujia people, and it is regarded as the crystallization of wisdom and skill. It is called the flower of Tujia. According to the custom of the Tujia people, in the past when the Tujia girls were married, they had to make beautiful "Silankapu" on the weaving machine, that is, the earth flower cover.


Legend of origin

With regard to the origin and development of "Silankapu", there are only a few records in the history books.

 "Lan Han Shu · Southwestern Barbarians" said that the "Langan fine cloth" of the "weaving the cultural revolution and the brocade" is the predecessor of the Tuhua, and it is said that "Wuling Man" has "weaving veneer, dyed with grass", "Good five-color clothes", "clothes are colorful" Xi Shang.

 “Wuling Man” is a name used in the history of the Tujia people. The long tradition of the Tujia nationality has long been preserved. Until the change of the soil, the male and female still maintain the custom of “happy and beautiful”. In the literature, various names have been given to the soil cover: the same year "Longshan County" cloud: Tu Jin "performance five-color line for it, colorful and cute. Custom used for the quilt, or as a dress, or as a towel, it is also known as a towel.

 "Yongshun Fuzhi" cloud: "The spotted cloth is the earthen brocade." "The natives woven the weft with one hand, and picked the flowers with a fine horn in one hand, and smashed into five colors." The so-called "garden towel" "Tujin" and "bandits and posts" "Jin" and other similar titles refer to the earth flower cover.



Tujia daughters' association

Known as the "Oriental Valentine's Day" daughter, it will be a national event of the Enshi Tujia family and one of the most representative regional ethnic traditional festivals in China. It is the spontaneous mate choice method that the Enshi Tujia spontaneously formed with the excuse of the market, the song as the form, and the love for the purpose. The time is generally on the 12th day of the lunar calendar.

       The legacy of the original marriage customs of ancient Ba people is a kind of love way in the remote Tujia cottages and the feudal arranged marriage. It is the main purpose of the Enshi Tujia youth in the process of pursuing free marriage. Festival event. Its main feature is to use song as a medium to choose a spouse. At that time, young girls will be the mainstay, and married women will go to participate. Through the form of songs, they will find the right person or date with the old lover.



When attending the daughter's meeting, the young women dressed in festive costumes put on their most beautiful clothes, used to wear long clothes inside, short to wear outside, one is shorter than one, and all layers can be seen. It is called "bright fold" or commonly known as "three drops of water" and wears its best gold and silver jewelry.On the day of the daughter's meeting, the girls put the native goods on the back of the street on the side of the street, and they were steady sitting on the backs of the inverted, waiting for the people to buy things. The young man slanted a piggyback on his shoulder, shaped like a careless wanderer, yelling in front of the girl, the two sides talked in a harmonious way, when the opportunity was similar, they went to the jungle outside the street to catch the "daughter club", and asked the man through the woman. For the form of songs, you can communicate with each other for a lifetime.


Originating from women's marriage is not free, they use the voice of crying marriage to accuse the criminal marriage system. Today, marriage is free. Tujia girls also want to cry when they marry, but the crying after liberation is only a ritual. Accompanying the ten sisters is a unique form of the Tujia girl crying and marrying. On the first night of the bride's marriage, Yan Niang invited 9 unmarried girls in the neighborhood, and even the bride had a total of 10 people sitting around, singing all night, so she said to accompany the ten sister songs.

The ten sisters sat around a table, first of all, the bride cried "ten pendulum", the bride cried "a pendulum", the chef put the same dish on the table, after the end, the rest of the nine sisters cried, and finally the bride cried" "The chef will collect the wine in the same way. After the dish is finished, the ten sister activities will end."


Crying is usually carried out in the bride's mortuary. Whoever the bride cries to, must go to cry, the man will not cry, but also say a few words of comfort and blessing to show goodbye. It’s the most lively night before the bride’s marriage. Especially before dawn, when parents, sisters and brides cry, they cry like tears, tears are all down, and the kindness of their loved ones is vividly displayed. The onlookers are all moved to tears.

When the girl cried, the neighbors also persuaded to cry, crying quietly, persuading the words, while sobbing and rubbing their hands and tears, the hard-to-find flesh and blood affection, let people move, the people present were all present. For the tears. At this time, there is another rule that the female relatives (friends) who accompany the crying must give the prostitute a "waist ritual" and also called "padded pockets." When crying, the girl hangs a red apron on her neck, and the relatives and friends persuaded the cry while adding money to the inside (the old is mostly lace - that is, Guangyang). This means comfort and affection, blessing the prostitute to be healthy and straightforward.


Meat ringing
The fleshy sound is the "Liang Xiang Dance" that does not hold the copper money. The bare-handed back, mainly with the palm of the hand, shoulders, face, arms, elbows, waist, legs and other parts, issued a rhythmic sound. According to the needs of the performance, the artist adds a tongue and fingers to the sound of the accompanying committee to increase the joyful atmosphere of the dance. It fully shows the rough character of the Tujia people.


Waving hand dance
Hand-dance dance is a long-established traditional dance of the Tujia people. It is a quiet and large-scale dance epic of the Tujia people who remember the ancestors, recall the hardships of the national migration, and reproduce the pastoral life. Their costumes and props also contain the cultural elements of the nation. A variety of national costumes and props will be decorated with grandeur and warmth. There are a lot of flags on the swinging field. People hold the Dragon and Phoenix flag team (made of red, blue, white and yellow silk), wearing "Silan Kabu" (flower cover), holding the stickers. The "Fu" character of the wine cans, bear the grain, take prey, end the scorpion, pick the scorpion, mention the tofu, hold the eyebrow stick, the sword, the tube, take the bird gun, the eyebrow stick, the shuttle dart and other props, blow the horn The soil number, the cymbal, the three eyes, the gongs and the drums, the singing, the male and the female, the dancing, the atmosphere is very warm. As described in a Tujia Zhuzhi word: "Fu Shicheng in the Jin Zuo Wo, the water of the King Palace is a wave of water. The red lanterns are thousands of people, a swaying hand song.


Sardinia, also known as "jumping", is an ancient liquid burial ritual dance of the Tujia people of Enshi. There are sayings that "there are people who die, one dozen and two help", "repair without sorrow, imitation without shrinking". The custom of the Tujia people’s affairs reflects the optimistic attitude of life and death in the united national spirit. Nowadays, the mourning has gradually separated from the funeral activities and become a kind of folk dance of the Tujia people.


Folk Customs